Thursday, April 1, 2010
No microcontrollers needed here! I started playing with some 7490 decade counters and decided to build a digital clock. The first trick was getting an accurate 1 second time base. There are a few options here, you can divide the 60 Hz AC line frequency (in the US) down to 1 Hz or you can build a crystal oscillator and divide that frequency down with decade counters.
I decided to take a more hacky approach and took a 1 Hz oscillator circuit out of an analog Micky Mouse clock. There are a few different ways you can wire these up explained very nicely here. With my clock I didn't have to run the outputs through diodes or transistors (each output is 1/2 Hz), connecting them directly together worked just fine. I also powered it off the 5 volt supply by using a current limiting LED across its power input, the alternative is to have a separate battery for the clock. Every quartz clock circuit is different so its something you have to experiment with on the breadboard before building!
The time is kept by six 7490 decade counters. The 1 Hz clock is pulsed into a 7490 wired up as a mod 10 counter (for seconds 0-9). The output of the mod 10 counter is pulsed into a 7490 wired as a mod 6 counter (for seconds 0-5). That circuit is then duplicated for the minutes (0-59). The hours are then counted by two 7490s wired up as a mod 24 counter. (0-23).
The tens of seconds are displayed by 3 LEDs in binary. The 7 segment displays are driven by four 4511 BCD-to-7 segment decoders. I needed thirty-three 100 Ohm resistors in total for all the displays and LEDs. Good luck!